Franzini, l. R. (2001). Humor in therapy: the case for training therapists in its uses and risks. Journal General Psychology, 128(2), 170-193.

“In addition to its potential salubrious effects on clients, therapeutic humor might have the positive side effect of preventing or minimizing professional burnout in therapists”.

Franzini, l. R.

Ganz, F. & Jacobs, J. (2014). The effect of humor on elder mental and physical health. Geriatric Nursing, 35(3), 205-211. doi:

“Humor is generally defined as a positive global mental state, unique to each individual, spanning aspects of cognition, emotion, behavior, and communication”.

Ganz, F. & Jacobs, J.

Lefcourt, H.M., Davidson, K., Prkachin, K.M., & Mills, D.E. (1997). Humor as a stress moderator in the prediction of blood pressure obtained during five stressful tasks. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 523-542.

Using systolic and diastolic blood pressure as an indication of cardiovascular reactivity, that humor is a potential stress moderator.

Lefcourt, H.M., Davidson, K., Prkachin, K.M., & Mills, D.E. (1997)

Martin, R.A., & Dobbin, J.P. (1988). Sense of humor, hassles, and immunoglobulin A: Evidence for a stress-moderating effect of humor. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 18, 93-105.

Subjects with low scores on the humor scales revealed a stronger negative relationship between hassles and S-IgA than did those with high humor scores.

Martin, R.A., & Dobbin, J.P. (1988)

Fredrickson, B.L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and wellbeing. Prevention and Treatment, 3, 1-26.

Positive emotions broaden the momentary repertoire of thought-action and slow or diminish the domain of negative emotions in an individual’s mind and body.

Fredrickson, B.L. (2000)



Cai, C., Yu, L., Rong, L., & Zhong, H. (2014). Effectiveness of humor intervention for patients with schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 174-178. doi:

“The implementation of humor skill training in a mental health service can improve rehabilitative outcomes and sense of humor for schizophrenia patients who were in the rehabilitation stage”.

Cai, C., Yu, L., Rong, L., & Zhong, H.

Lebowitz, K., Suh, S., Diaz, P., & Emery, C. (2011). Effects of humor and laughter on psychological functioning, quality of life, health status, and pulmonary functioning among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A preliminary investigation. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 40(4), 310-319. doi:

“Sense of humor was associated with fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety and an enhanced quality of life. However, the induction of laughter led to lung hyperinflation”.

Lebowitz, K., Suh, S., Diaz, P., & Emery, C.

Martin, R.A. (2016). Humor and Mental Health. In Encyclopedia of Mental Health (2Ed.) (pp. 350-353). doi:

“In addition to its cognitive and emotional aspects, humor is essentially a social phenomenon”.

Martin, R.A.

Martin, R.A. (2001). Humor, laughter, and physical health: Methodological issues and research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 504-51.

In 2001, Martin says that will be need more rigorous and theoretically informed research. He reviewed published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health. The are some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions and few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms.

Martin, R.A.

Martin, R.A., Kuiper, N.A., Olinger, L.J., & Dance, K.A. (1993). Humor, coping with stress, self-concept, and psychological well-being. Humor, 6, 89-104

Greater levels of humor are associated with a more positive self-concept, self-esteem, and standards for self-worth evaluation, a more positive and self-protective cognitive appraisals facing stress, and greater positive affect in response to both positive and negative life events.

Martin, R.A., Kuiper, N.A., Olinger, L.J., & Dance, K.A. (1993)