Abolition of slavery and slave trade (Rotberg, 1965).


British conquest of Lagos (Southern Nigeria), and commencement of control of

economic activities in the region (Burns, 1929) .


The Berlin treaty of 1855 gives the part of West Africa, now known as Nigeria to Britain (Idowu, 2008).


Lagos (Southern Nigeria) formally becomes a British Colony (Burns, 1929) .


Royal Niger Company, founded by Sir George Taubman Goldie, begins legitimate trade activities on commodities (e.g. Palm Oil and Palm Kernel) in southern Nigeria, culminating in the establishment of oil palm plantations and commencement of deforestation in Nigeria (Burns, 1929) .


Formation of the protectorates of Southern and northern Nigeria (Burns, 1929) .


Amalgamation of the Southern and Northern Protectorates, under the name Nigeria (Burns, 1929) .


Colonial forest policy (forest nationalisation) introduced: creation of Government Forest Reserves and Community Forest. Communities protested but Colonial Authorities explained that Government Forest Reserves were necessary to reserve some forest for future generations. Government was holding the forest (in trust) for the people (CRS Forestry Commission).


Logging concessions and logging licenses in several Government Forest Reserves in Western Nigeria (e.g. Ondo province) granted UAC (united African Company), culminating in the establishment of Sawmills and Plywood factories, and the commencement of large scale deforestation in Western Nigeria.


Brandler and Rylke Ltd, London commences mechanised timber logging activities in Eastern Nigeria. Logging concessions granted by Government in Government Forest Reserves. Sawmills established in different places, e.g. Apiapum in Cross River State, Nigeria. Communities alarmed by deforestationcaused by Brandler & Rylke.

Establishment of several Government Oil Palm, Rubber and Cocoa plantations e.g. Calaro, Ayip Eku, CREL, ONREL, IBIAE, Borum, etc and the exacerbation of deforestation (CRS Forestry Commission).


Nigeria became independent on October 1st, 1960. Forestry Departments became major revenue agencies of Government through timber logging activities. Government established wood industries e.g. Seromwood Industries & Calabar Veneer and Plywood factory (CRS Forestry Commission).


End of Nigerian Civil War (January 15th, 1970), and more pressure on the forest for revenue. In Cross River State, several companies granted logging concessions in Government Forest Reserves e.g. Hanseatic Ltd, Isulight Ltd, Kisari Ltd, Ikobi brothers Ltd, and Magnificat Ltd (CRS Forestry Commission).


Nigeria has lost 90% of her forest (WWF/ODNRI, 1989) .

Creation of Cross River National Park, in 1989 (CRNP).


ODA Forestry Project in Cross River State (1991-1994) and Bisong (1994) .

DFID Community Forestry Project in Cross River State (1999-2002) (CRS Forestry Commission).


Logging ban and closure of WEMPCO, a Chinese logging factory at Ikom, Cross River State, Nigeria in 2004 (CRS Forestry Commission).

Commencement of Cross River State UN-REDD negotiations in 2009.

Micro level illegal logging challenges. No livelihood programmes (CRS Forestry Commission).