Lee and Barro [18]

Ten countries of the Middle East/North Africa, 23 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, 23 countries of Latin America/Caribbean, 10 countries of East Asia/Pacific, 7 countries of South Asia, 23 OECD countries, 9 countries that formerly and centrally planned economics


Pupil-teacher ratio has a significant negative effect on scores in math, science, and language.

Average treatment of teachers has a significant positive effect on test scores.

Ordinary expenditure of education per student is insignificant.

McMahon [19]

World and regional (Africa, Latin America, Asia, and OECD)


Ordinary public expenditure on primary education in percent of GNP has a significant positive effect on gross enrollment rates of boys and girls in primary school Grade 5 and the completion rate for boys and girls.

Ordinary public expenditure per elementary student has a significant negative effect.

Gupta et al. [20]

Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Latin America, Caribbean transition countries

OLS and two-stage squares (2SLS)

Education spending on primary and secondary education (as a percent of total education expenditure) has a significant positive effect on the gross enrollment rates in primary and secondary education, retention in 4th year of studies.

Education expenditure (in percent of GDP) has a positive and significant effect only on the secondary school enrollment rate; Effects on the other two variables are not significant.

Schultz [21]

Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya and South Africa, Nigeria, and Burkina Faso


Remuneration of public teachers (in percent of GNP per active-age adult) has a negative effect.

Colclough and Lewin [22]

China, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Colombia, Ghana, and Senegal


Ordinary public expenditures on primary education (in percent of GNP) have an insignificant effect.

Ordinary public expenditures per elementary student (in percent of GDP per capita) have a negative effect.